Quantification of Dust load in the ITD region

Bou Karam D., C. Flamant, P. Tulet, J-P. Chaboureau, A. Dabas, M. C. Todd (2009b): Estimate of Sahelian dust emissions in the Intertropical discontinuity region of the West African Monsoon, submitted to JGR.


Abstract

A three-dimensional mesoscale numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the dust emissions over Sahel associated with strong near-surface winds in the region of the West African Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) during the summer, when the ITD is located over Niger and Mali around 18°N.

The study focuses on the period from 2 to 12 July 2006, in the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Special Observing Period 2a1. A comparison with space-borne observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) as well as airborne lidar observations acquired on 7 July 2006 demonstrates that the model is able to reproduce the complex vertical structure of the dynamics and aerosol field associated with the monsoon-harmattan interface.

This suggests that the model can be used reliably to analyse and quantify the dust emissions associated with the strong monsoonal surface winds blowing over the Sahelian dust sources during the rainy season. A comparison with the surface observations in Niamey between 2 and 12 July period indicates that the near surface characteristics of the monsoon to the south of the ITD are realistically reproduced over the period of the simulation.

The dust load in the ITD region simulated by the model is compared to the estimates derived from satellite observations using the method of Koren et al. [2006]. The daily mean values of dust load related to the strong winds on both side of the ITD, estimated from the simulation within the model domain (2°W-16°E, 12-28°N), are in excess of 2 Tg on some days and are found to be underestimated with respect to the observational estimates.

In the present case, the dust load associated with the strong winds south of the ITD accounts for approximately 1/3 of the total load over the entire domain on a given day, and is simulated to range between 0.5 and 0.8 Tg on average.

This indicates that the mean daily dust load estimated in the ITD region is close to the estimated daily rate of dust emission from the Bodélé depression. This study suggests that emissions driven by strong surface winds occurring on both sides of the ITD while it lies across the Sahel may contribute significantly to the total dust load over West and North Africa observed annually.

Keywords: Dust, MesoNH, airborne lidar, density current, AMMA

Dry cyclogenesis and dust lofting over Sahara-Sahel

Diana Bou Karam, Cyrille Flamant, Pierre Tulet, Martin C. Todd, Jacques Pelon and Earle Williams: Dry cyclogenesis and dust mobilization in the Inter Tropical Discontinuity of the West African Monsoon: a case study, submitted to JGR.



Abstract

Three-dimensional mesoscale numerical simulations were performed over Niger in order to investigate dry cyclogenesis in the West African Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) during the summer, when it is located over the Sahel. The implications of dry cyclogenesis on dust emission and transport over West Africa are also addressed. The study focuses on the case of 7th July 2006, during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Special Observing Period 2a1.

Model results show the formation of three dry cyclones along the ITD during a 24-hour period. Simulations are used to investigate the formation and the development of one of these cyclones over Niger in the lee of the Hoggar-Aїr Mountains. They show the development of the vortex to be associated with (a) strong horizontal shear and low-level convergence existing along the monsoon shearline and (b) enhanced northeasterly winds associated with orographic blocking of cool air masses from the Mediterranean Sea. The dry cyclone was apparent between 0700 and 1300 UTC in the simulation and it was approximately 400 km wide and 1500 m deep. Potential vorticity in the centre of vortex reached nearly 6 PVU at the end of the cyclogenesis period (1000 UTC).

The role of the orography on cyclogenesis along the ITD was evaluated through model simulations without orography. The comparison of the characteristics of the vortex in the simulations with and without orography suggests that the orography plays a secondary but still important role in the formation of the cyclone. Orography and related flow splitting tend to create Low Level Jets (LLJs) in the lee of the Hoggar and Aїr mountains which, in turn, create conditions favorable for the onset of a better defined and more intense vortex in the ITD region. Moreover, orography blocking appears to favor the occurrence of a longer-lived cyclone.

Furthermore, model results suggested that strong surface winds (~11 m s-1) enhanced by the intensification of the vortex led to the emission of dust mass fluxes as large as 3 µg m-2 s-1. The mobilized dust was mixed upward to a height of 4-5 km to be made available for long-range transport.

This study suggests that the occurrence of dry vortices in the ITD region may contribute significally to the total dust activity over West Africa. The distribution of dust over the Sahara-Sahel may be affected over areas and at time scales much larger than those associated with the cyclone itself.

Key Word: AMMA, cyclone, dust emission, MesoNH, Intertropical Discontinuity.



Model inter-comparisons of dust emission over the Bodélé Depression


M.C. Todd, D. Bou Karam, C. Cavazos, C. Bouet, B. Heinold, G. Cautenet, P. Tulet, C. Perez, I. Tegen, and R. Washington: “Quantifying uncertainty in estimates of mineral dust flux: an inter-comparison of model performance over the Bodélé Depression, Northern Chad”, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D24107, 2008, doi:10.1029/2008JD010476.

Abstract

Mineral dust aerosols play an important role in the climate system. Coupled climate aerosol models are an important tool with which to quantify dust fluxes and the associated climate impact.

In recent years, numerous models have been developed but to date there have been few attempts to compare the performance of these models. In this paper a comparison of five regional atmospheric models with dust modules is made, in terms of their simulation of meteorology, dust emission and transport.

The inter-comparison focuses on a 3-day dust event over the Bodélé depression in Northern Chad, the world’s single most important dust source. Simulations are compared to satellite data and in-situ observations from the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx 2005).

Overall, the models reproduce many of the key features of the meteorology and the large dust plumes that occur over the study domain. However, there is at least an order of magnitude range in model estimates of key quantities including, dust concentration, dust burden, dust flux and AOT.

As such, there remains considerable uncertainty in model estimates of the dust cycle and its interaction with climate. The paper discusses the likely sources of this model uncertainty.

Biomass burning aerosol characterisctics over Benin

Pelon,  J., M. Mallet, A. Mariscal, P. Goloub, D. Tanré, D. Bou Karam, C. Flamant, J. Haywood, B. Pospichal, S. Victori: “Characterisation of biomass burning aerosol from microlidar observations at Djougou (Benin) during AMMA-SOP0/DABEX”, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00C18,  doi:10.1029/2008JD009976. 

Abstract:

Microlidar observations performed at the Djougou-Nangatchori site in northern Benin, have been performed during the AMMA-SOP 0/DABEX intensive observation period of AMMA in the dry season, from mid-January to mid-February 2006. During the dry season, the Djougou area is a region where biomass burning aerosols are heavily produced from agriculture fires.

The aerosol vertical distribution is also controlled by dynamics, as the penetration of the winter monsoon flux to the north, and northern winds bring mineral dust leads to a frontal discontinuity location close to Djougou latitude. During the early dry season, the aerosol vertical distribution was observed to be structured in two layers, the lower being the boundary layer reaching altitudes up to 2 km, and an upper layer reaching 4 to 5 km.

Lidar data are used to retrieve the time evolution and vertical profile of extinction, and discuss transport processes during the period analyzed. As the monsoon flux during the dry season is steadily progressing to the north, but also moving back and forth according to shorter time scale forcings, biomass burning particles are transported from the boundary layer into the upper troposphere. This transport has a strong impact on the distribution of aerosol particles on the vertical, and extinction values larger than 0.3 km-1 have been retrieved at altitudes close to 3 km.

A particular event of biomass burning air mass outbreak associated with a synoptic forcing is studied, where satellite observations are used to discuss observations of biomass burning particles over Djougou and at the regional scale.